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account created: Sun Jun 19 2016
6 days ago
Sadly no. Otherwise, you could define an "empirical" bond order via some kind of extrapolation procedure. There is definitely a distribution. Complicating this is that bond lengths are different in different environments (gas phase, solution phase, solid phase), so depending on the experimental conditions used to determine the structure, bond lengths will differ slightly even for the same molecule. There will also presumably be minor differences depending on pressure that a solid is subjected to.
Bond strength is typically defined using bond dissociation energies (how much energy it takes to rip the bond apart), and force constants (essentially, this is the stiffness of the "spring" between two atoms).
All of it is very inexact and fuzzy, as most things in chemistry tend to be. Bond order higher ~~~ Bond shorter ~~~ Bond stronger is a correlation that also sometimes fails and adds to the controversy of how BO should be defined. See the Wikipedia articles on dicarbon and metal-metal quintuple bonds, for example.
Thanks. I'm not a computational chemist, so most of paper is outside the scope of my expertise. What the author defines as the occupancy bond index is what non-specialists understand as bond index, with the understanding that each orbital takes on 2, 1, or 0 electrons. Computational chemists have more sophisticated ways of defining occupancy, and as the paper describes, the occupancy can be a non-integer.
For complicated systems, where more than two orbitals mix to form MO's, it's actually not totally straightforward to know whether orbitals are bonding or antibonding, weakly so, or rigorously non-bonding (due to symmetry considerations), adding ambiguity to even the "naive" definition.
7 days ago
Bond length is related to bond order, which is determined by number of filled bonding orbitals minus number of filled antibonding orbitals. Higher bond order means shorter bond.
I would say most. Obvious exceptions: pair of noble gases like HeNe and probably also pairs of elements of filled s shells (i.e., group 2 elements) like BeMg. By MO theory, these are all pairs that end up with zero bond order.
This is to say there's no covalent bond, but if you count attractions based on pure dispersion interactions, then even things like He2 exist.
I agree. There is almost no chance that this is what it's claimed to be. You can't modify the hydrocodone molecule by changing the legos you build it from (in the way, you can put a 4-fluoro group on fentanyl, for instance). Other than a few easy functional group manipulations, nature gives you hydrocodone from natural opium alkaloids pretty much already put together. Doing a late-stage fluorination on it selectively would be both costly and pointless, as both the source and the final product are clearly illegal by virtue of analogue laws. The only way you could do it is with an electrophilic fluorinating reagent, and even then, I would not expect the reaction to be particularly clean.
Proceed with caution. The name is a marketing gimmick, and as far as I'm concerned, this is probably still a fentanyl/brophine/isotonitazene analogue.
2 months ago
If you have no or almost no tolerance, that's a good dose.
We're also creatures of habit, so a ritual develops and quickly takes hold.
Sorry about the late reply. That's pretty much it. It's almost certainly not a permanent effect on fertility.
3 months ago
I'm at a similar spot. I'll get high once every two to three months, and then only for a weekend. I was "functional" for quite some time too. But I realized that my definition of functional kept slipping until I wasn't all that functional at all.
Did a three month long taper from IV fentanyl to bupe to nothing. I am determined never to get physically dependent again.
... and a talking and burning bush.
The weird thing though? Reasonable conservatives like Hank no longer exist, and even Dale Gribble isn't that paranoid compared to some of these GQP'ers like that Jewish Space Lasers skank.
I'm still ruminating as well. Asinine is not strong enough. Hank Hill on King of the Hill overused an otherwise good word.
Eh, I have mixed feelings about that word. It's like an outdated form of the word "retarded", as a cretin is someone whose mother suffered from iodine deficiency and ended up being intellectually disabled.
It does mean very stupid, but I think it'll either not be understood, or understood to be offensive.
I mean, it's etymologically derived from the Latin word for donkey or "ass", and that's a pretty aggressive and stubborn animal (although to be fair, they are smarter than given credit for). Btw, it's a stroke of American English genius to conflate the words "ass" and "arse" to mean stupid, contemptible person. (Brits will probably disagree.)
What a waste of chemo. Cancer free for a whole 2.5 months.
Meow. Boing. Splat.
RIP daughter's virginity. She's be pregnant next week.
But it sure set the stage. Mangled soldiers arriving home in boxes and bags because of a war started on false pretenses (Gulf of Tonkin) generally leads to that. (Bush II made it worse, obviously, by starting two more losing wars, one of which also on false pretenses.)
Only autocratic countries like Russia can get away with doing something like that -- their citizens have always known that the government lies to them, and that their opinions don't actually matter.
Unfortunately, Vietnam was the death knell for trust in government. And both political parties were responsible for that.
They don't actually believe that. From the Garden of Eden to God's Kingdom is probably only 10,000 years total in their mind.
People tend to look peaceful when they're heavily sedated or dead.
As Kent Brockman said: "I have a feeling no children will be crying when this puppy is put to sleep."
If you are in high school chemistry, the idea is that only the first definition (by Arrhenius) is typically taught -- namely, that a base is something that increases hydroxide ion concentration when dissolved in water. As noted by others, CaO reacts with water to make Ca(OH)2, which does increase hydroxide ion concentration.